Fracking, also referred to as hydraulic fracturing, is one of the two major types of accessing oil and gas deposits that are so deep in the ground. This method of oil and gas mining uses a simulation technique to make the wells release fuel. A mixture of water, sand and other additives is made then pressurized to create micro-fractures through the rock. The sand in the mixture helps in holding the micro fractures open. On the other hand, additives such as gel are used to add a glue effect to the water. This is to prevent the proppant from sinking. Instead, it helps suspend the sand. In other cases, the additive or chemical used helps to enhance the fracturing ability of water.
Generally, the process of fracturing take no more than five days. After which, the company owning the fractured well will cover the wells with soil and only maintain the wellhead where steel cases are bored to bring up the oil or natural gas. Then, the company should be mining the one well for up to 50 years.
Fracturing, as means of extracting fuels, was first introduced by the Standard Oil in the 40s. Since then, the method has often been combined with other extraction techniques to increase the profitability of a well. It is estimated that in the next decade to come, approximately 95% of the US oil will be mined using fracking.
Fracking has been a huge source of employment. According to statistics, by the year 2012, the industry employed over 2.1 million employees, across United States. It is expected that these numbers will add as the years go by, reaching up to 3.9 million dollars by the year 2025. Another statistic indicate that the number of people employed in oil and gas extraction increased by 67% from the year 2013 to 2012.
Fracking allows us access to more gas and oil reserves. Compared with other methods of fuel extraction, this seems to be the most effective techniques for mining oil that is so deep in the ground. The result of these is lower cost of oil and gas in the United States and all over the world.
With this oil and gas extraction technology, the dependency on other countries for energy, will definitely reduce.